Comparison: Cold City Transit Systems Costs and Coverage

Minneapolis-St. Paul (The Twin Cities)

Composition: Buses (130 routes, 68%), light rail (2 lines, 29%), commuter rail (1%) are run by Metro Transit.

Daily volume: Over 264K daily rides on average.

Coverage and metro area: 1,460 sq km out of 2,650 sq km urban area; 21,000 sq km metro area.
Metro Transit: 78%, including 100% of the urban area; Opt-out suburban transit 17%; Private subcontractors 5%.
Population: Metro: 3.3M (58% of 5.7M state population), including 3.1M urban + some part of 834K suburban. The Twin Cities Metro is composed of Minneapolis, St. Paul, and the suburb of Bloomington, as well as other suburbs.
Area population density: 3,020 sq km (urban); 200 sq km (metro).
Median income: In 2018, the area median income (AMI) for a household of four was $94,300 (per the Metropolitan Council).

Funding structure: $393M/annual revenue, of which $98M (25%, mandated by legislation) comes from user fees. Primarily (63.4%) state-funded, including from the State Motor Vehicle Sales Tax (55%), and the State General Fund (8.4%). Participating metro counties contribute 8% to the annual budget. Federal funding contributes 1% to the budget.

Expenses: $421M/year, of which 71% pays salaries.
$140/resident (Metro area) annually.
Budget shortfall: $28M in 2017.

Working conditions: Unionized. 3,200 employees.

Cost per ride: Downtown travel $0.50; On-hours: $2.50; off-hours: $2.

Governing authority: The Metropolitan Council, an infrastructure planning administrative body with powers superseding local governments, and authorized by the state legislature. Its members are appointed by the state Governor.

Winter severity: Winter Length (operationalized as horticultural frost dates):  62% of the year. Winter Intensity: -14C.

 

Winnipeg:

Composition: Buses (93 routes).

Daily volume: 168.5K daily rides on average.

Coverage & metro area: TBD out of 464 sq km.
Population: 808,400 (60%) Winnipeg metro area, out of 1.35M province-wide.
Metro density:  1,430/sq km population density.
Median income: CA$82,000/household (US$62,400).

Funding structure: $85.5M (44%) comes from user fees, $65M (34%) comes from municipal funding, $42M (22%) comes from provincial funding,

Expenses: $193M/year, of which 62% pays salaries.
$239/Winnipeg resident annually.

Working conditions: Unionized. 1,560 employees.

Cost per ride: $2.50-$3 by rider status.

Governing authority: City of Winnipeg.

Winter severity: Winter Length:  69% of the year. Winter Intensity: -18C.

 

Montreal:

Composition:

Daily volume:

Coverage:
Metro area density:
Population:

Funding structure:

Expenses:

Working conditions: Unionized.

Cost per ride:

Governing authority:

Winter severity: Winter Length (operationalized as horticultural frost dates):  65% of the year,  238 days, Oct 7-May 3. Winter Intensity (operationalized as average January low): -12C.

 

Goteborg:

Composition:

Daily volume:

Coverage:
Metro area density:
Population:

Funding structure:

Expenses:

Working conditions: Unionized.

Cost per ride:

Governing authority:

Winter severity: Winter Length (operationalized as horticultural frost dates):  61% of the year, 221 days, Oct 21-April 30. Winter Intensity (operationalized as average January low): -2C.

 

 

 

Advertisements

Globalization Ltd

“In terms of conventional markers of contemporary globalization such as trade, migration, investment or tourism, it is hard to find evidence of increased global integration or even of faster growth since the 1970s (thought to be the start of neoliberal globalization). In all of these forms of interaction except migration, growth has remained steady since the 1950s, and even slowed in per capita terms…And the distribution of flows between different regions of the world has remained almost steady since the 1870s…To be sure, the accumulated growth is significant, but it does not mark out a transformative moment of accelerated interaction or time space compression” ( McKeown 2007: 227).
What has changed globally since the 1970s is:
1) The growing global role of East Asia and trans-Pacific trade
2) The decline of Africa, Latin America and the ex-Soviet bloc
3) Subcontracting network expansion
4) Patterns of migration, and
5) The shape of global inequality (McKeown 2007: 227).
A globalist rather than Eurocentric approach to globalization will recognize that northern and southeastern Asia sits alongside the Americas among the world’s great frontiers. “Absolute and per capita emigration rates across Asia were as large as the transatlantic migrations and followed similar ebb and flow cycles. Manchurian soy fields, Malayan tin mines, African palm oil plantations and Siamese rice paddies were as much a part of the expanding world economy as Manchester factories and North American wheat… These migrations were part and parcel of globalization. But it was a segmented and unequal globalization” (McKeown 2007: 226).

We need to recognize “globalization as a process that generates inequalities as well as convergences” (McKeown 2007: 226). Like Eurocentric periodizations, neophilia, insistence on Newness, obscures the violence, compulsion, segmentations and hierarchies that have long accompanied globalization, and “renders past interactions invisible…The past promises and failures of civilization, colonialism and modernization to bring the world together are forgotten…This forgetting makes it possible to keep claiming endlessly (as Modernists will) that only in the present have we truly obtained the power to overcome rather than perpetuate existing patterns of inequality and segmentation, and thus to further obscure the creation and perpetuation of that inequality and segmentation” (McKeown 2007: 228).